Formula: Electric Field in Matter Polarization field    Polarization    Vacuum Permittivity

Formula: Electric Field in Matter
External field is weakened in the dielectric material

Polarization field

Polarization field is an electric field created due to polarization \( \class{red}{P} \), which is directed against the external electric field \( \class{purple}{E} \).


Polarization describes the density of electric dipoles in a material (number per volume) and induces a polarization field \( \class{purple}{E_{\text{p}}} \), which can be aligned either opposite or in the same direction as the external electric field, thereby amplifying or weakening the external electric field.

Vacuum Permittivity

The vacuum permittivity is a physical constant that appears in equations involving electromagnetic fields. It has the following experimentally determined value: $$ \varepsilon_0 ~\approx~ 8.854 \, 187 \, 8128 ~\cdot~ 10^{-12} \, \frac{\mathrm{As}}{\mathrm{Vm}} $$

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