Centripetal force keeps a body on a circular path and points to the center of the circular path. For example, the orbiting of the Earth around the Sun can be approximated by a circular path. The centripetal force is then the force that keeps the Earth in its orbit.
Speed with which a body moves on the circular path. The greater the speed, the greater the centripetal force must be to keep the body on the circular orbit (with a certain radius).
Radius of the circular orbit. Since the centripetal force is parallel to the radius, it is also called radial force.
Mass of the body moving on a circular path. Light bodies are easier to keep orbiting (with a certain speed) than heavy bodies (with the same speed).