Physical Alphabet: Learn it Before You Learn Physics!

Physics utilizes Latin and Greek letters along with various symbols to express the laws of nature in equations. If you aspire to understand physics equations to the best of your ability, present equations to others, or even formulate your own equations, you must first master the alphabet of physics. Familiarize yourself with each symbol and learn its pronunciation.

Letters that are easily confused should not be used in equations at the same time!

Letter Pronunciation Usage in physics
\(A\) Area, Activity
\(B\) Magnetic flux density
\(C\) Capacitance
\(D\) Electric flux density
\(E\) Electric field
\(F\) Force
\(G\) Gravitational constant
\(H\) Magnetic field
\(I\) Current
\(J\) Unit: Joule, current density
\(K\) Unit: Kelvin
\(L\) Angular momentum, Inductance
\( \Lambda \)LambdaCosmological constant
\(M\) Torque, Mass
\(N\) Particle number
\(P\) Power
\(Q\) Charge, heat
\( \nabla \)NablaDerivative operator
\( \Delta \)DeltaDifference
\( R \) Resistance
\( S \) Entropy
\( T \) Temperature
\( U \) Voltage
\( V \) Volume
\( W \) Energy, work
\( X \) Complex part of impedance
\( Y \) Electrical conductance
\( Z \) Atomic number, impedance
\(a\) Acceleration
\(b\) Damping constant
\(c\) Specific capacitance
\(d\) Thickness
\(e\) Elementary charge
\(f\) Frequency, focal length
\(g\) Gravitational acceleration
\(h\) Planck constant, height
\(i\) Imaginary unit
\(j\) Current density
\(k\) Boltzmann constant
\(l\) Length
\(m\) Mass
\(n\) Charge carrier density, quantum number
\(p\) Momentum
\(q\) Test charge
\(r\) Radius
\( \rho \)RhoMass density
\(s\) Distance
\(t\) Time
\(u\) Atomic mass unit
\(v\) Velocity
\( \Xi \)XiCascade particle
\( \Gamma \)GammaDecay width
\( \Pi \)PiPressure
\( \Omega \)OmegaUnit: Resistance
\( \Theta \)ThetaTwisting angle
\( \Phi \)PhiMagnetic flux
\( \Psi \)PsiWave function
\( \Sigma \)SigmaSum sign
\( \delta \)DeltaLoss angle
\( \partial \)DelPartial derivative
\( \epsilon \), \( \varepsilon \)EpsilonVacuum permittivity
\( \phi \), \( \varphi \)PhiPhase angle
\( \alpha\)AlphaAngular acceleration, angle
\( \beta \)BetaAngle
\( \gamma \)GammaWeight, Lorentz factor
\( \hbar \)h querReduced Planck constant
\( \eta \)EtaViscosity
\( \pi \)PiPi number, \( \pi \)-myon
\( \sigma \)SigmaConductivity
\( \delta \)DeltaLoss angle
\( w \) Energy density
\( x \) Space coordinate
\( y \) Space coordinate
\( z \) Space coordinate
\( \lambda \)LambdaWavelength
\( \theta \), \( \vartheta \)ThetaAngle
\( \tau \)TauHalf-life
\( \mu \)MuDipole moment
\( \omega \)OmegaAngular frequency
\( \psi \)PsiWave function
\( \xi \)XiSound deflection

The Latin letter "O, o" was not included in the alphabet because it can be confused with zero. Also the Greek letter \( \zeta \) (zeta) is omitted here, because it is used very rarely in physics and therefore, according to the Universaldenker minimalism, is omitted.

+ Perfect for high school and undergraduate physics students
+ Contains over 500 illustrated formulas on just 140 pages
+ Contains tables with examples and measured constants
+ Easy for everyone because without vectors and integrals

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