Alexander Fufaev
My name is Alexander FufaeV and here I will explain the following topic:

What is the Difference Between Electric and Magnetic Fields?

Explanation

Video

This lesson is also available as a YouTube video: 7 Differences between an Electric and Magnetic Field

Electric and magnetic fields differ in the following ways, for example:

  • The unit of electric field is \( \frac{ \text{V} }{\text{m} } \) (volt per meter) and the unit of magnetic field is \( \frac{ \text{Vs} }{\text{m}^2 } \) (volt-second per square meter).

  • Electric field \( \class{purple}{\boldsymbol{E}} \) is caused by both moving and non-moving electric charges. A magnetic field \( \class{violet}{\boldsymbol{B}} \), on the other hand, is caused ONLY by moving charges.

  • A positive charge is the source of the electric field. In nature, a positive charge can occur as an electric monopole. In other words: Such a positive charge can occur alone. Magnetic fields, however, have no monopoles. That means: There is no single north pole (source), which generates the magnetic field. North pole (sources) and south pole (sinks) always occur together.

  • Magnetic field lines are closed loops. Electric field lines, on the other hand, do not have to be closed, but can, for example, go 'to infinity', like the field lines of a point charge.

    fufaev.org Magnetic Field Lines of a Current-Carrying Coil
    Magnetic field lines of a current-carrying coil form closed loops.
    fufaev.org Positive charge - electric field lines
    Electric field lines of a positive charge are not closed and are directed to infinity.
  • When an electric charge moves in the electric field, the charge is accelerated. This causes the charge to change its energy. If, on the other hand, an electric charge moves through a magnetic field, the charge is NOT accelerated, that is, the charge does not change its energy. In short: E-fields do work on charges, but B-fields do not!

    Electric dipole in inhomogeneous electric field
    A dipole (positive + negative charge) is accelerated in the electric field to the positive charge. The dipole gains kinetic energy.
  • A charge \(q\) in an electric field \(E\), experiences an electric force \( F_{\text e} = q \, E \). A moving charge in a magnetic field \(B\) perpendicular to the motion, experiences a magnetic force \( F_{\text m} = q \, v \, B \).

  • An electric field can be shielded, for example with the help of a Faraday cage. A magnetic field, on the other hand, cannot be shielded, but at least deflected.