Alexander Fufaev
My name is Alexander FufaeV and here I will explain the following topic:

Electrolysis simply explained

Formula

Formula: Electrolysis (1st Faraday law)
Electrolysis - Basic Principle
What do the formula symbols mean?

Mass

Unit
This is the mass of all ions that are deposited on an electrode. It is therefore the difference between the mass of the electrode before and after the electrolysis experiment.

Mass

Unit
This is the mass of a single ion that is deposited on an electrode during electrolysis. For example, this can be the mass of a \(\text{Na}^+\) ion.

Number

Unit
This is the number of elementary charges \(e\) that an ion carries. The electric charge of an ion is a multiple of the elementary charge: \( Z \, e \).

Electric current

Unit
This is the current generated by the charge transport of the ions. This current can be measured with an ammeter in an experiment.

Time

Unit
This time period indicates how long an electrical voltage was applied between the electrodes, because the longer the voltage was applied, the more time the ions had to settle on an electrode.

Elementary charge

Unit
The elementary charge is a physical constant and is the smallest, freely existing electric charge in our universe. It has the exact value: $$ e ~=~ 1.602 \, 176 \, 634 ~\cdot~ 10^{-19} \, \mathrm{C} $$
Explanation

Video

Electrolysis is a chemical process in which an electric current is used to trigger a non-spontaneous redox reaction. This reaction leads to the splitting of molecules into their components through electrolysis.

fufaev.org Electrolysis - Basic Principle
Electrolysis - Basic Principle

During electrolysis, the electrolyte (an electrically conductive liquid) is broken down into ion pairs. A voltage \(U\) is applied to the electrodes in the electrolyte. Negative ions then migrate towards the positively charged electrode (positive pole of the voltage source) and release electrons. Positive ions move towards the negative electrode (negative pole of the voltage source) and absorb electrons.

Formula anchor