My name is Alexander FufaeV and here I write about:

# Electrolysis simply explained

## Important Formula

## What do the formula symbols mean?

## Mass

`$$ \Delta m $$`Unit

`$$ \mathrm{kg} $$`

This is the mass of all ions that are deposited on an electrode. It is therefore the difference between the mass of the electrode before and after the electrolysis experiment.

## Mass

`$$ M $$`Unit

`$$ \mathrm{kg} $$`

This is the mass of a single ion that is deposited on an electrode during electrolysis. For example, this can be the mass of a \(\text{Na}^+\) ion.

## Number

`$$ Z $$`Unit

`$$ - $$`

This is the number of elementary charges \(e\) that an ion carries. The electric charge of an ion is a multiple of the elementary charge: \( Z \, e \).

## Electric current

`$$ \class{red}{\boldsymbol I} $$`Unit

`$$ \mathrm{A} = \frac{ \mathrm C }{ \mathrm s } $$`

This is the current generated by the charge transport of the ions. This current can be measured with an ammeter in an experiment.

## Time

`$$ \Delta t $$`Unit

`$$ \mathrm{s} $$`

This time period indicates how long an electrical voltage was applied between the electrodes, because the longer the voltage was applied, the more time the ions had to settle on an electrode.

## Elementary charge

`$$ e $$`Unit

`$$ \mathrm{C} $$`

The elementary charge is a physical constant and is the smallest, freely existing electric charge in our universe. It has the

*exact*value:`$$ e ~=~ 1.602 \, 176 \, 634 ~\cdot~ 10^{-19} \, \mathrm{C} $$`Electrolysis is a chemical process in which an electric current is used to trigger a non-spontaneous redox reaction. This reaction leads to the splitting of molecules into their components through electrolysis.

During electrolysis, the electrolyte (an electrically conductive liquid) is broken down into ion pairs. A voltage \(U\) is applied to the electrodes in the electrolyte. Negative ions then migrate towards the positively charged electrode (positive pole of the voltage source) and release electrons. Positive ions move towards the negative electrode (negative pole of the voltage source) and absorb electrons.

$$ \begin{align} \Delta m ~=~ \frac{M}{Z \, e} \, I \, \Delta t \end{align} $$