Alexander Fufaev
My name is Alexander FufaeV and here I write about:

How Does the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Work?

Mach-Zehnder interferometer is an optical setup with which the interference phenomena of monochromatic light can be investigated in order to determine, for example, the wavelength of the light or the refractive index of a gas.

Setup of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Schematic setup of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

The beam emitted by the laser is sent through the first beam splitter B1, where it is split into two partial beams that continue in two different directions. The two partial beams are then reflected at the mirrors M1 and M2 at a 90 degree angle and brought together again in the second beam splitter B2.

Two beams exit the second beam splitter in one direction and the other two beams are offset by 90 degrees. If you place two screens at both exits A and B, you can see two laser points.