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# Seebeck Effect: How a Temperature Difference Generates an Electrical Voltage

## Important Formula

## What do the formula symbols mean?

## Thermoelectric voltage

`$$ U $$`Unit

`$$ \mathrm{V} = \frac{ \mathrm J }{ \mathrm C } = \frac{ \mathrm{kg} \, \mathrm{m}^2 }{ \mathrm{A} \, \mathrm{s}^3 } $$`

This voltage occurs when two conductors of different materials are brought into contact at two points and the contacts have a slightly different temperature.

Typical thermoelectric voltage for metal-to-metal contacts is in the order of \( \sim 10 \, \mu\text{V} \) at \( 1 \, \text{K} \) temperature difference.

## Seebeck coefficient of second material

`$$ S_{\text A} $$`

A material constant of the material A.

## Seebeck coefficient of first material

`$$ S_{\text B} $$`

A material constant of the material B.

## Temperature of first material

`$$ T_1 $$`

Absolute temperature of the 1st contact of the two conductors of different materials.

## Temperature of second material

`$$ T_2 $$`Unit

`$$ \mathrm{K} $$`

Absolute temperature of the 2nd contact of the two conductors of different materials.

The Seebeck effect describes the relationship between the temperature difference between two different metallic or semiconducting materials and the voltage that arises between these materials.

$$ \begin{align} U = \left( S_{\text B} - S_{\text A} \right) \, \left( T_2 - T_1 \right) \end{align} $$