Alexander Fufaev
My name is Alexander FufaeV and here I will explain the following topic:

Transformer: How Voltage is Amplified or Attenuated

Explanation

Video

A transformer is used to convert an input voltage \( U_1 \) into an output voltage \( U_2 \) by utilizing electromagnetic induction.

How does the ignition system of a combustion engine work?

The ignition system of a gasoline engine operates by exploiting the law of electromagnetic induction. For this purpose, a transformer is used, consisting of two closed circuits. In the primary circuit, a voltage \(U_1\) is applied to the primary coil, which has \(N_1\) windings. In the car, the \(12 \, \mathrm{V}\) battery provides this voltage. The circuit can also be interrupted by turning the car key.

fufaev.org Basic circuit of an ignition system
Basic circuit of an ignition system

In the secondary circuit, the secondary coil with \(N_2\) windings and a spark plug are connected. When the voltage \(U_1\) is interrupted by turning the car key, according to the law of electromagnetic induction, a voltage \(U_2\) is induced in the secondary circuit. In order to generate an electrical spark at the spark plug, the contacts (electrodes) of the spark plug must be as close as possible, and a high voltage must be induced. A high voltage in the secondary circuit can be generated by choosing a larger number of windings \(N_2\) for the secondary coil, in contrast to \(N_1\):

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The spark from the spark plug ignites the engine.