What is the Magnetization of a Material?
Video
The magnetization \( \boldsymbol{M} \) describes the magnetic properties of a material. It is formed by the sum of all atomic magnetic moments \( \boldsymbol{\mu} \) per volume \( V \):
If you apply an external magnetic field \(\boldsymbol{H}\) (or equivalently \(\class{violet}{\boldsymbol{B}}\)) and place a material into this magnetic field, the material will behave differently depending on the magnitude of the magnetization:
Here \(\chi\) is the magnetic susceptibility, which determines how good a material can be magnetized.

If the magnetic susceptibility is negative: \( 1 \lt \chi \lt 0 \), then the material is diamagnetic. (Note that \(\chi\) cannot be less than 1. A superconductor has \(\chi = 1 \) and is a perfect diamagnet).

If the magnetic susceptibility is positive: \( \chi \gt 0 \), then the material is paramagnetic.

If the magnetic susceptibility is much greater than zero: \( \chi \gg 0 \), then the material is ferromagnetic.