The magnetization \( \boldsymbol{M} \) describes the magnetic properties of a material. It is formed by the sum of all atomic magnetic moments \( \boldsymbol{\mu} \) per volume \( V \):

If you apply an external magnetic field \(\boldsymbol{H}\) (or equivalently \(\class{violet}{\boldsymbol{B}}\)) and place a material into this magnetic field, the material will behave differently depending on the magnitude of the magnetization:

Magnetization depends on the external magnetic field

Formula anchor$$ \begin{align} \boldsymbol{M} ~=~ \chi \, \boldsymbol{H} \end{align} $$

Here \(\chi\) is the magnetic susceptibility, which determines how good a material can be magnetized.

If the magnetic susceptibility is negative: \( -1 \lt \chi \lt 0 \), then the material is diamagnetic. (Note that \(\chi\) cannot be less than -1. A superconductor has \(\chi = -1 \) and is a perfect diamagnet).

If the magnetic susceptibility is positive: \( \chi \gt 0 \), then the material is paramagnetic.

If the magnetic susceptibility is much greater than zero: \( \chi \gg 0 \), then the material is ferromagnetic.

+ Perfect for high school and undergraduate physics students + Contains over 500 illustrated formulas on just 140 pages + Contains tables with examples and measured constants + Easy for everyone because without vectors and integrals